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YEAN-Rwanda

🌾🌽UBUHINZI BWACU🌽🌾
Dore ibitekerezo :
i) Uko abahinziborozi basobanukiwe imirire myiza n’indyo yuzuye: bamwe ntibasobanukiwe.
ii) Umuhinzi mworozi uburyo aha agaciro iyi myumvire y’INDYO yuzuye: bisaba ko abanza kubisobanukirwa.
iii) Imbogamizi abahinziborozi bahura nazo mu kugera ku mirire myiza : Tubanze dusobanukirwe n’igisobanuro cy’Umuhinzi mworozi mu Rwanda, nkuko tubikesha ibiro mpuzamahanga by’Umurimo (BIT) na raporo ya NISR (Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare) nuko mu Rwanda abenshi bitwa Abahinzi ariko ari abashomeri kuko bakora ubuhinzi twakwita mpinge ndamuke (agriculture of subsistance), iyo ubu buhinzi buhuye na ya raporo ya FAO ivuga ko buri muryango ufite ubutaka buhingwa buri munsi ya 0.5ha, cyangwa se [(26,338 km² /12 millions)-Ubutaka butuwe bugenda bwiyongera – Ubutaka bw’Imihanda, inzuzi, amashyamba, Ibiyaga, inzuzi, amanegeka,….] Iki kinyuranyo cyerekana ko wa muhinzi uhingira kuramuka ahinga hato akabura n’ubushobozi bwo kubona inyongeramusaruro bituma asarura bicye akabura ubushobozi bwo guhaha imfashandyo (imbuto, amafi,…..) ibi iyo bibuze biganisha ku mirire mibi.
iv) Ingaruka z’imirire mibi ku musaruro w’abahinziborozi : Imirire ishora Umuhinzi mu ndwara za hato na hato bigatuma adakora bigatuma umusaruro w’Ubuhinzi ugabanuka uwitwaga Umuhinzi agahinduka umutwaro kuri Leta.
v) Ibisubizo kuri izo mbogamizi twavuze haruguru :
Ibisubizo ni uguharanira guhinga hato ariko tugasarura byinshi.
vi) Ibyifuzo :
Leta, Abikorera n’abafatanyabikorwa bakwiye gushyira hamwe bakazamura ubuhinzi banigisha Abahinzi kumenya gukoresha neza umusaruro babona mu buhinzi.
Murakoze
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Maize production

NTIBYOROSHYE :

Reka dufate urugero rw’Umuhinzi munini (Big farmer) wahinze Ibigori ku butaka bwe bwa 1.5ha muri season A2018 wenda mu BURASIRAZUBA.

IBISHORO:

Kurima (75,000frw), gusanza no gutera imbuto (60,000Frw);

Kugura no gutunda Ifumbire y’imborera ya 10.5tons (40,000frw);

Igiciro cy’ifumbire ya DAP (150Kg×430frw/Kg = 64,500frw), igiciro cy’ifumbire yo kubagaza ya UREA (75Kg×360frw/Kg = 27,000frw);

Igiciro cy’Imbuto y’indobanure SC403 (37.5Kg×300frw/Kg = 11,250frw);

Igiciro cyo kubagara no kurwanya ibyonnyi ~50,000 frw;

Igiciro cyo kuhira ibihe biramutse bitagenze neza : 75,000frw;

Guhemba abasarura, abanika, abatunda n’abahungura Ibigori ( ~80,000 frw);

IBISHORO BYOSE : 482,750frw

IBYINJIZA AMAFARANGA (UMUSARURO):

Umusaruro kuri 1ha yahinze neza cyane ni 5.5tons/ha bivuze ko kuri 1.5ha azasarura 7,750kg.

Bizwi ko 30% by’umusaruro byangirikira (food losses) mu gusarura ubwo Ibigori bizaboneka ni 7,750-(7,750kg ×30%) = 5,425kg

Niba igiciro cy’ibigori cyashyizweho ari 180frw/Kg

Ubwo uwo muhinzi azabona 5,425 × 180= *976,500 frw.*

Inyungu/Igihombo = 976,500frw – IBISHORO byose = 976,500 frw – 493,750frw = 493,750 frw

Niba kuva ku rubuto rw’ikigori kugera ku rundi bitwara amezi 5 ubwo ku kwezi Umuhinzi munini (Big farmer) yinjiza 98, 750frw/month ku mwaka ubwo yinjiza 987,500frw. (cycle y’ibigori mu mwaka ni 10month).

Niba umukozi ukorera umushahara uhembwa 100K bimugora guhaha mwibaze uwo muhinzi witwa ngo ni munini.

Twibaze ibiba ku bahinzi bato (small holder farmers) batabasha kubona IBISHORO navuze haruguru.

ICYIFUZO :
Ubuhinzi bwo mu Rwanda bukwiye “Plan KAGAME”.

Murakoze.

Statistical method in Agriculture 

🌾🌽UBUHINZI BWACU🌽🌾
*IBARURISHAMIBARE RY’UBUHINZI N’UBWOROZI*. 
Nk ‘umuhinzi/umworozi birakwiye gukora ibikorwa bigendeye ku mibare : *Birakwiye rwose kuko ari ngombwa kumenya aho uvuye mu mibare ifatika ndetse n’ aho wifuza kugera*. 
Urugero: *Abahinzi bakagize aho bandika ibyashowe (input calculations) ndetse ngo anabare ibyo azasarura (output/production calculations) kugira ngo azabigereranye arebe ko yungutse cg yahombye *(Benefit = Output – (input + charges)*. Iyi mibare iyo Umuhinzi/Mworozi atabikoze mu byukuri ntamenya urugero rw’ingamba afatira ihinga ritaha. 
Ikindi umuhinzi agomba kumenya umubare w’abo agomba guhingira i.e. Umuryango we + indiririzi (parasites) ndetse n’isoko. Ibi iyo atabimenye ni kumwe ahinga ugasanga nawe ntibimuhagije, ugasanga yabuze amafaranga yo kwishyurira umuryango we Ubwishingizi mu buhinzi (CBHI~Community based Health Insurance), iyo uwo muhinzi yaba afite umwana muto akabura icyo agura imfashandyo (ubwo niho havuka imirire mibi bwaki igatongora) yewe uwo muhinzi akanabura n’amafaranga yo kugura imyambaro ye n’iy’ab’umuryango we (bakambara imyenda ishaje twita *ibicocera* ni ba bana tubona mu byaro bambaye ikabutura zicitse ku bibuno), bikanagera yewe n’aho umuhinzi anabura n’isabune ugasanga afite umwanda ku mubiri (aranuka) no ku myambaro. 
Mwibaze rero iyo Umuhinzi ufite ubutaka bungana wenda na 0.5ha ukuntu yakwiteza akaga kangana gutya umuryango ndetse n’Igihugu cye kuko uwari gutanga umusoro aba ahindutse utungwa n’imisoro y’abandi…… 
Icyifuzo :  *Umuntu ufite ubutaka kuva kuri 0.5ha kuzamura ntakwiye kujya mu bo Leta iha inkunga z’ingoboka ahubwo akwiye gufashwa kwifasha*
Turagaruka kuri izi ngingo:
*uruhare n’ubumenyi by”umuhinzi/umworozi mu kubona no gukoresha amakuru ajyanye n’imibare: *Uruhare ni rucye ahubwo usanga benshi banabyigishwa ariko bikaba amasigaracyicaro.  Eg: raporo ya NISR igaragaza ikigero cy’abakora ( *Labour Force Survey February 2017* ) itubwira ko mu bahinzi 70% uRwanda rufite gusa 45.9% aribo byitwa ko bafite akazi (niba ntibeshye) ubwo abo bandi ~24.1% bitwa Abahinzi bahingira kuramuka (subsistance Agriculture) bakaba bafatwa n’urwego mpuzamahanga k’abadafite akazi (unemployed people). 
*uruhare rw’ibigo byikorera n’ibya leta mu bushakashatsi n’ubusesenguzi bw’amakuru no kuyatangaza: 
*Leta itegura imirongo myiza (good policies) Eg: EDPRSII &  PASTA (Strategic Plans for the Transformation of Agriculture) yewe ikanaherekezwa n’izindi gahunda nko kunganira Abahinzi kugura inyongeramusaruro (input & motorized water pumps subsidies) ariko ikibazo kikaba bamwe mu babishyiriweho batabibyaza umusaruro.*
*NB*: Abikorera ntibashora byinshi mu buhinzi kubera batunguka vuba, usanga bigira mu gutanga serivisi kuko niyo ibaha inyungu zidatinda. 
Igitera ubwoba abikorera, mbona ari ukubona Abahinzi 70% bagira uruhare rwa 30% mu musaruro mbumbe w’Igihugu (GDP national accounts). 
Inama : 
(1) Ubuhinzi/ubworozi n’ubwo bwunguka butinze ariko iyo inyungu zije hari amahirwe 80% ko zigumaho;
(2) Ubuhinzi nibwo butunze isi bityo rero nta yandi mahitamo kuko bugomba kubona ababukora kandi neza. 
*Imbogamizi*: Ni ubumenyi n’imyumvire (urugero : Hari ukwibwirira ko agomba guhinga – korora nka se na sekuruza akiyibagiza ko abo ubwo buhinzi bwatungaga icyo gihe bikubye inshuro nyinshi kandi ubutaka buhingwa butiyongera ahubwo buri kugabanuka kubera imiturire. *INGAMBA NI UGUHINGA HATO ARIKO UGASARURA BYINSHI*)
*Ibisubizo kuri izo mbogamizi* : Abanyarwanda baganjemo abantu bafite imbaraga zo gukora (URUBYIRUKO) ruzikoresheje rero ibintu byahinduka byiza. 
Uruhare rw’Umwarimu, Umuhinzi,Agoronome/veterineri na Leta) mu migendekere myiza y’ibarurishamibare : 
*Aba bose barasabwa kubanza kumva uburemere bw’ingaruka zo kutagira ibarurishamibare rihamye, bamara kubyumva bagafata ingamba nabo bakagendera ku bipimo bifatika ndetse bakabisakaza mu bahinzi.*  Ibi bintu kandi Leta nayo irasabwa kubishoramo byinshi ibihugurira abafatanyabikorwa mu buhinzi. 
Murakoze cyaneeee.

Food Demand- Supply Forecasting and Population Growth colleneality. 

Abaturage bagenda biyongera umunsi ku wundi, ubutaka buhingwaho ntabwo bwiyongera, kwiyongera kw’abaturage kwajyana gute no guteganya ikizabatunga? 

Hakorwa iki ngo tubashe guteganya ibiribwa bihagije: 

*Abafatanyabikorwa mu buhinzi bakwiye kugira iki kibazo icyabo, umuhinzi agahinga azi ko urugo rwe abantu biyongera ijanisha iri n’iri, umuhinzi agahinga kandi azi neza ubwiyongere bw’isoko rye.*

*Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’iy’igenanamigambi bagakwiye gukorera hamwe bishoboka bagahugura Abafatanyabikorwa mu buhinzi ukuntu hateganywa ibiribwa bijyanye n’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage (Food Demand- Supply Forecasting and Population Growth colleneality).*

Icyakorwa ngo ubwiyongere bw’abaturage bujyane n’ubwiyongere bw’umusaruro :

*Abaturage bagomba kubyara abo bashoboye kubonera ibiribwa, MINISANTE irasabwa imbaraga mu gushishikariza abaturage kuboneza imbyaro, MINAGRI igakora ISOBANURAMPAMVU (concept note) rihamye.* 

Uburyo busanzwe buhari bwo guteganya ibiribwa: 

*Uburyo busanzwe bwo guhiga ko umusaruro w’Ubuhinzi n’ubworozi ukwiye kwikuba 8% ni bwiza ariko inzego zishinzwe Ubuhinzi dukwiriye kujya duhiga abo tuzagaburira bakijuta aho guhiga ubwiyongere by’ibiribwa gusa tutazi abo bizatunga. Iyi ngingo ni ingenzi kuko hari abanyapolitiki bamwe bakigira iturufu yabo ngo bakunde babone ubutegetsi.*

Imbogamizi zigarara mu guteganya ibiribwa :

*Bisaba imibare ya gihanga n’ibarurishamibare rikoreshwa mu bukungu (Econometrics) kugirango abo bireba babishobore bacyeneye guhugurwa ubutitsa*. 

Ingamba n’inama mu guteganya ibiribwa bijyanye n’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage :

*Inama isumba izindi ni ukubanza icyi kibazo buri wese akakigira icye. Abikorera bagashyiraho ibiro ngishwanama (consultancy bureau) zajya zigisha buri byiciro iyo mibare yo kujyanisha ubwiyongere by’Abaturage n’ubw’ibiribwa babikoze neza nkeka ko Leta n’imishinga bikorana byabatera ingabo mu bitugu.*

No Food no Life no Future.